History of Morocco

The history of Morocco dates back to the time of the Capsiense culture, between 10,000 BC. C. and 6000 a. C., at a time when the Maghreb was less arid than today. The Berber language probably arrived at the same time as agriculture, and was adopted by the population already settled there. DNA analysis shows that several populations have contributed to the Moroccans’ gene mix, including, in addition to the main ethnic groups, Berbers and Arabs, Phoenicians, Sephardic Jews, and sub-Saharan Africans. Archaeological evidence shows that the region was already inhabited by hominids as early as 400,000 years ago. The written history of Morocco begins with the Phoenician colonization of the Moroccan coast between the 8th and 6th centuries BC, although it was already inhabited by the Berbers some 2,000 years earlier. In the 5th century BC, the domains of the city-state of Carthage extended along the coasts of North Africa.

They remained there until the end of the 3rd century BC. but later the territory was ruled by native monarchs. Berber kings ruled Mauritania from the 3rd century BC. until the year 40, when the kingdom was annexed to the Roman Empire. The Vandals invaded the area in the 5th century, before it was recaptured by the Byzantine Empire in the 6th century. The region was conquered by the Muslims in the early 8th century, but broke away from the Umayyad Caliphate after the Berber revolt of 740. Half a century later, the Moroccan state was established by the Idrisid dynasty Under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, Morocco dominated the Maghreb and Muslim Spain. The Saadian dynasty ruled the country from 1549 to 1659, followed by the Alawite dynasty from 1667 onwards, and they have been ruling the country ever since. In 1912, after the First Moroccan Crisis and the Agadir Crisis, the Treaty of Fez was signed, dividing Morocco into a Spanish and French protectorate. In 1956, after 44 years of French rule, Morocco gained its independence, and soon after regained control of most of the territories under Spanish rule. Since 1999, Mohamed VI has headed the monarchy in Morocco.